“I LIKE A GOOD STORY, WELL TOLD. THAT IS THE REASON I AM SOMETIMES FORCED TO TELL THEM MYSELF.” – MARK TWAIN
SUNDAY, JUNE 3, 2018
“Compasses are the primary navigation tools to use when moving in an outdoor world where there is no other way to find directions. [You] should be thoroughly familiar with the compass and its uses.”
So begins the primary reference on military wayfinding, FM 3-25.26 Map Reading and Land Navigation (January 2005).
The compass pictured above is the standard military magnetic lensatic compass, which comes in two flavors:
1) The phosphorescent one, which requires application of a light source to make the phosphor marking glow at night for use after dark.
The National Stock Number (NSN) for it is 6605-01-571-6052. It runs about $53 on Amazon.
2) The “3H” one which designated that is uses H3, i.e tiny amounts of radioactive tritium (seven spots, in fact) to provide unassisted illumination for approximately 12 years after manufacture.
The NSN is 6605-01-196-6971. It runs about $71 on Amazon.
It doesn’t matter which one you get. It does matter who makes the one you get. Cammenga is the official US .mil supplier; they are the Victorinox of mil-spec compasses.
|Mil spec M2|
Another good option (if you already have it) is the Brunton M2 mil-scale surveying compass, which is a $350 civvy version of a military M2 compass for artillery and such. It is the Rolls Royce of military compasses, and if you have one, it will serve well, but I wouldn’t buy one if you have nothing, given the sticker price. (And it also comes in a degree-scale version.) Save your money and use a decent basic compass. But if you run across one, they’re definitely worthwhile.
The advantages of the military compasses over civilian versions are that they’re in private-soldier-proof military heavy-duty aluminum housings that you can literally run over if they’re folded closed, pry up out of the dirt, and still use afterwards.
In that respect, both Cammenga and Brunton make quality products. Most other knock-off look-alikes are cheap Chinese shit (I’m looking at you, Rothco), and craptastic in a way beyond mere disgust, especially when your life is on the line, and useful only if you need a weight for fishing, or something to throw at a dangerous snake. Don’t buy that cheap shit. You’ve been advised.
If, however, you’re on such a tight budget that you can’t see spending even $53 on a compass that will outlive you and your grandkids if treated properly, and is as rugged as a bulldozer, a basic Silva 1-2-3 Starter Compass, for $17 will do everything the military Cammenga will need to do – provided you never drop it, sit on it, or step on it. For civvy versions of compasses, stick with Silva and Suunto, the Toyota and Nissan-level makers. Once again, everything else is generally crap. Caveat emptor.
I would and do happily use a basic Silva for trips in the wilds, but never carry it alone – always with a backup (usually a sturdy mil-spec), as the perils of depending on an inherently fragile form of wayfinding should be readily apparent. Buy one of the Silvas as a spare, or secondary compass; even if you use it primarily, have a back-up, probably of heavier-duty. I don’t know about you, but when I go on a walkabout, my @$$ is worth more than $17. And as a rule, I usually have a primary compass, a back-up, another one on my wristwatch band or its own wrist band, and one or two little last-ditch ones, one pinned in headgear or a pocket, and yet a fifth in the still-yet-to-be covered Personal Survival Kit. What they weigh (almost nothing) vs. what they do makes them well worth that level of redundancy, even if you’re carrying a quality GPS as well (and I have one of those too).
For best use, the compass needs to be paired with a protractor for use with the map you’re using.
Think of the compass and protractor as the fork and knife, and the map is your plate. You need them all to get the job done.
We’ll cover it more when we get to maps, but know that the US military uses the Military Grid Reference System (MGRS), while most civilian maps, like standard USGS topo grids, use Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) as their datum or method of designation and reference. For now, it’s sufficient to tell you those two types, and make sure you’re able to work with the one(s) you’re using.
Note that if you are using civilian maps, like USGS, the scale also differs from that on military maps (1:24,000 vs 1:25,000), so you should either have a protractor that does both, or get one for each type of map, and pay careful attention to which one you’re using. As they’re simply approx. 3″ squares of plastic, you should have both types handy for use. You can get one that does both for about $13 on Amazon.)
If there’s not an obvious landmark, or you can’t see one because night, woods, jungle, etc., you send one of your teammates out along that bearing. You may have to move him to the left or right a bit with hand signals as he goes to get and keep him on bearing. When he’s gotten to the limit of visibility in vegetation or terrain, you move up to him. In this way, you can follow a bearing, even at night, or in deep woods or heavy jungle. No buddy? The farthest thing you can see on your line. A tree, a bush. If you have to, go one-step-at-a-time. You’ll get there eventually.
Or, you can use literal Rules-Of-Thumb:
If you can thusly estimate range from something marked on a map, then take your compass to determine its magnetic bearing, and convert that to a true bearing, you can plot where you are on the map on that bearing line, and in the exact reverse of using a pace count, locate yourself on a map, with reasonable precision.
If you then sight an azimuth to another landmark, you can triangulateyour location to a very small circular error of probability (usually more dependent on the inaccuracy of the gradation scale of your compass, and the scale of the map you’re using).
(And yes, guys, triangulation is two points. Selecting a third takes your location, which is a blob of unknown size at the apex due to the unknown amount of sighting error and compass rose gradation uncertainty, and that third bearing line simply boxes you into a slightly more precise triangle of uncertainty. Remember the proverb: A man with one watch knows what time it is; a man with two is never certain.)
This is why using the mil marks is better, because the 20-mil ticks are a hair more than a single degree across, whereas the degree ticks themselves are at 5° graduations. (Extrapolating backwards from our earlier note, your area of uncertainty is also 55′ wide per degree per km of distance. That’s probably the best you’ll ever get without actual surveyor’s theodolites and using the precision of diamond-cutters. Which simply ain’t gonna happen in the field, unless you’re an actual survey party.) So using just calibrated eyeballs, the mils are more precise on a mil-spec compass, even the standard non-precision one used most. You don’t have that option at all with the civilian compasses that lack a mil scale. Just something to consider, even if you’re not worried about laying rounds in on target with artillery.
If you have a mil-dot scope on a weapon, you can already (and probably have) heard about using mils for tighter distances.
Knowing the average man is 24″ from shoulder to shoulder, how wide he appears in mils with that chart can give you his range away from you from 95-667 yards.
Larger objects can be calculated as well, if you know their real-world dimensions.
If I know, e.g, that an M1 Abrams has a hull 25′ long, and it measures 6 mils wide in a scope, I know that it’s located about 1383Y away:
Width (8.3m long) X 1000 ÷ 6 (mils wide) = 1383.3
Meters x 1000 ÷ mils = distance in yards
You can do this with semi-trailers (avg. 40′ long), or a standard tire size, or the width of a standard door (3′), or the height of typical utility pole (35′), etc. If you can see it, and know how big it is, you can work out the distance with mils, because math.
If a USPS mailbox is 32″ wide, or a fire hydrant is 32″ tall, (I don’t know if either of those things are correct, but that’s just an example pulled out of space) I can use the chart to get yards for each (0.889) and go from there to get distance from me, based on how many mils wide they are, assuming I have an optic that can measure that, and I can do basic math. Stay in school, kids. Math is forever.
Degrees and mils are both very useful, and tell you not only where you’re going, but where you are. Learn them both, and don’t be afraid of using them.
Author: Alfred E. Neuman
71 year old geek, ultra-conservative patriot. View all posts by Alfred E. Neuman